WebSt. Articles like these are sponsored free for every Catholic through the support of generous readers just like you. His contribution to modern medicine cannot be overstated, and he helped eradicate one During the reign of the emperor Trajan (89-117), Saint Onesimus was arrested and brought to trial before the eparch Tertillus. In the extant text of the Quran, the punishment for an unmarried adulterer (Zani) or adultress (Zania) is flogging: "The woman and the man guilty of fornication/adultery flog each of them with a hundred stripes: Let not compassion move you in their case, in a matter prescribed by Allah, if ye believe in Allah and the Last Day: and let a party of the Believers witness their punishment. Philosopher Moses Maimonides wrote, "It is better and more satisfactory to acquit a thousand guilty persons than to put a single innocent one to death. Saint James was the first of Jesus apostles to die for following him, and hes one of the only two apostles whose death is recorded in the Bible.  But in the 2004 edition of the Roman Martyrology, Onesimus is listed under 15 February. They argue that the "more fundamental human rights issue in Nigeria is the dysfunctional justice system. Nisrine Abiad (2008), Sharia, Muslim States and International Human Rights Treaty Obligations, British Institute of International and Comparative Law, OU Kalu (2003), Safiyya and Adamah: Punishing adultery with sharia stones in twentyfirstcentury Nigeria, African Affairs, 102(408), pp. Under such a system, the list of civil crimes which carried a death sentence by stoning would include homosexuality, adultery, incest, lying about one's virginity, bestiality, witchcraft, idolatry or apostasy, public blasphemy, false prophesying, kidnapping, rape, and bearing false witness in a capital case..  The death of Stephen, as reported in the New Testament (Acts 7:58) was also organized in this way. If this caused Her car We see how a lot of Black folks are less willing to just go and get the vaccine compared to some other communities. The crime? Lives of the Saints /. While one in 40 seems like a high number, its much lower than the one-in-six who were dying from smallpox prior to inoculation. Copyright Aleteia SAS all rights reserved. A sailor showed signs of having smallpox and was quickly quarantined but not quickly enough, because smallpox quickly spread throughout the state. However, since the reign of Domitian was from 81 AD to 96 AD, then Onesimus' death would have to fall within these years and not 68 AD as stated above. Language links are at the top of the page across from the title. Onesimus had been inoculated in his native West Africa, according to LaShyra Nolen, a student at Harvard Medical School who has researched Onesimus. Hadith Muslim 17:4192. Feastday: February 16. , On 14 September 2009, the outgoing Aceh Legislative Council passed a bylaw that called for the stoning of married adulterers. Saint Philemon (January 4, February 19, and November 22) was afterwards consecrated bishop of the city of Gaza. It was followed by condemnation by Shiite scholars. The traditional Western commemoration of Onesimus is on 16 February. This section states that any man who divorces his wife must register it with the Union Council. This is the view held by all Companions, Successors and other Muslim scholars with the exception of Kharijites. But while Mather first viewed his gift as heaven-sent, he later became suspicious of him.  Amnesty International later learned that the girl was in fact 13 years old and had been arrested by al-Shabab militia after she had reported being gang-raped by three men. Apr 20, 2023, 04:51 PM EDT. , Several adultery executions by stoning committed by IS were reported in the autumn of 2014. He was arrested for his faith under Emperor Trajan, a persecutor of Christians. After the death of the holy apostles he preached the Gospel In this case, if his wife counter swears, no punishment will be enforced. Inoculated against smallpox in Africa, Saint Paul was personally acquainted with Philemon, and wrote him a letter filled with love, asking him to forgive the runaway slave and to accept him like a brother. From the spring of 1721 until the winter of 1722, almost half of the 11,000 people in the area were stricken with the disease. He replied, "The Prophet carried out the penalty of Rajam," I asked, "Was that before or after the revelation of Surat-an-Nur?" A Massachusetts school is doing something about it. But Paul knows that there is in his day no shortage of philosophers teaching that slavery is unjust and contrary to WebBut in the 18th century, Onesimus was a slave who many consider the father of vaccines. Onesimus (Greek: , translit. Help us continue to bring the Gospel to people everywhere through uplifting and transformative Catholic news, stories, spirituality, and more. WebSt. For perhaps he departed for a while for this purpose, that you might receive him forever, no longer as a slave but more than a slavea beloved brother, especially to me but how much more to you, both in the flesh and in the Lord. An ox that gores someone to death should be stoned. A stunning statistic, by There are historical reasons why Black people distrust the health care system, but implicit bias in how Black patients are treated also plays a role. The public backlash to inoculation was so fierce that someone threw a small bomb through Mather's window, according to the Harvard Medical School account of the smallpox epidemic that covers Onesimus and Mather. , Stoning is condemned by human rights groups as a form of cruel and unusual punishment and torture, and a serious violation of human rights. In the second, the host organism itself recognizes the foreign body as deadly and attacks it until it dies. ('Abdullah bin 'Umar said, "I saw the man leaning over the woman to shelter her from the stones. Bernadette Giacomazzo is a NYC-based editor, writer, photographer, and publicist with a career spanning more than two decades in the entertainment industry. , Unlike other countries, where stoning was introduced into state law as part of recent reforms, Saudi Arabia has never adopted a criminal code and Saudi judges still follow traditional Hanbali jurisprudence. It has been attested as a form of punishment for grave misdeeds since ancient times. His opponent, who was more learned than he, said, "Yes, judge between us according to Allah's Laws, and allow me to speak." , Stoning has been condemned as a violation of women's rights and a form of discrimination against women.  The letter reads (in part): I appeal to you for my son Onesimus, whom I have begotten while in my chains, who once was unprofitable to you, but now is profitable to you and to me. Although stoning is also applied to men, the vast majority of the victims are reported to be women. WebDuring the reign of Roman emperor Domitian and the persecution of Trajan, Onesimus was imprisoned in Rome and may have been martyred by stoning (although some sources While in prison, he met Apostle Paul, became his disciple and took baptism from him. , "To the following sinners stoning applies , As God alone was deemed to be the only arbiter in the use of capital punishment, not fallible people, the Sanhedrin made stoning a hypothetical upper limit on the severity of punishment.. ", "Sudan End stoning, reform the criminal law", "Sudan: Amnesty International e Italians for Darfur mobilitati contro lapidazione di Layla", "Sudan Sentences a Woman to be Stoned to Death Based on Islamic Law", "Article 354 of Federal Law 3 of the Penal Code (Prohibition of Sexual Violence)", "Gays In The United Arab Emirates Face Flogging, Hormone Injections, Prison", " A Guide To Moving To The UAE Laws & Regulations", "Holding Hands, Drinking Wine and Other Ways to Go to Jail in Dubai", "Homosexuality can still mean the death penalty in many countries", "Judge blocks extradition of gay British man to UAE, where gays can face death penalty", "One photo of gay man in drag lands him on death row in Abu Dhabi", "Two women sentenced to death for adultery", "Woman denies affair after hearing she faces stoning", "Woman Sentenced to Death by Stoning in UAE", "Asian housemaid gets death for adultery in Abu Dhabi", "Expat faces death by stoning after admitting in court to cheating on husband", "Man, woman stoned to death for adultery in Syria: monitor", "Islamic State militants stone man to death in Iraq: witness", "Islamic State video 'shows man stone his daughter to death', Memri TV: "#4558 Woman Stoned to Death by ISIS in Syria", "The Object and Cause of True Santification", "Christian Reconstruction: Theocratic Dominionism Gains Influence", "The World's Muslims: Religion, Politics and Society", "Nigeria: Debunking Misconceptions on Stoning Case", "The Stop Stoning Forever Campaign: A Report", "Afghanistan: Reject stoning, flogging, amputation and other Taliban-era punishments", "Iran Human Rights Documentation Center Gender Inequality and Discrimination: The Case of Iranian Women", "2012 International Women's Day Institut international des droits de l'homme et de la Paix (2IDHP)", "Activists push for global ban on stoning", "Amnesty International Iran: Death by stoning, a grotesque and unacceptable penalty", "Here are the 10 countries where homosexuality may be punished by death - The Washington Post", "Man, sons convicted of stoning El Paso woman to death in Jurez", "Small-town mayor stoned to death in western Mexico", "Police: Killer invoked Old Testament in 'stoning' death", "Guilty plea in killing of 70-year-old Lansdowne man", "Ashtiani freed after 9 years on death row", "UAE court commutes death by stoning of Bangladeshi", "Top 10 Amazing Execution Survival Stories", Graphic: Anatomy of a stoning (National Post, November 20, 2010), Amnesty International 2008, "Campaigning to end stoning in Iran", Chillul Hashem (Desecration of God's name), Kiddush Hashem (Sanctification of God's name), Lifnei iver (Stumbling block in front of the blind), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Stoning&oldid=1151073239, Articles with dead external links from February 2019, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with dead external links from February 2022, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2022, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from February 2022, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2021, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License 3.0. Hadiths describe stoning as punishment under sharia. ", Despite Onesimus contributions to Boston and the development of the vaccine, his presence was for centuries overlooked in medical history. Both his legs and thighs were broken, and he was , In 2007, Du'a Khalil Aswad, a Yazidi girl, was stoned by her fellow tribesmen in northern Iraq for dating a Muslim boy. Stoning, or lapidation, is a method of capital punishment where a group throws stones at a person until the subject dies from blunt trauma. To this day, there are no images of Onesimus in the Library of Congress, but several of Cotton Mather. WebWhen Onesimus preaching about the merits of celibacy angered a governor of Rome, he was seized and tortured for 18 days. Some groups, such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch, oppose all capital punishment, including stoning. Onesimus' legs and thighs were broken with bludgeons before he was stoned to death.  The first conviction and sentence of stoning (of Fehmida and Allah-Bakhsh) in September 1981 was overturned under national and international pressure. At Mathers urging, Dr. Zabdiel Boylston inoculated his own son, Mathers son and 285 other Bostonians. Shortly after, Onesimus was baptized. There must be the most trustworthy and convincing testimony of at least two qualified eyewitnesses to the crime, who must also depose that the culprit had been forewarned of the criminality and the consequences of his project. It promises eventual forgiveness to the Russian people and the return of the supreme power from the Holy Theotokos after a long period of suffering and repentance. He replied, "I do not know.". According to the World Health Organization (WHO), it is the only infectious disease in modern history to be completely eradicated. He saw errors of commission as much more threatening to the integrity of law than errors of omission.. In 1721, Massachusetts was the epicenter of a smallpox epidemic. Stoning (Arabic: Rajm, sometimes spelled as Rajam) has been extensively discussed in the texts of early, medieval and modern era Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh)..  In May 2014, an Asian housemaid was sentenced to death by stoning in Abu Dhabi. Paul then sent a letter to Philemon asking for Onesimus' freedom, so Onesimus could become one of his own assistants. Highest support for stoning is found in Muslims of the Middle East-North Africa region and South-Asian countries while generally less support is found in Muslims living in the Mediterranean and Central Asian countries. In response, Mather reached out to the medical community in the area and encouraged them to inoculate the population against smallpox. Article 354 of the Federal Penal Code states: "Whoever commits rape on a female or sodomy with a male shall be punished by death. Onesimus helped Apostle Paul up until his death and then continued his ministry with the other apostles. With sincere repentance, he received forgiveness of his transgressions and ascended spiritually to become an apostle of the seventy. While inoculation and vaccination are often used interchangeably, there is actually a slight difference between the two processes. According to traditional jurisprudence, zina can include adultery (of married parties), fornication (of unmarried parties), prostitution, bestiality, and rape. This is generally held to indicate a death by beheading (though other forms of execution via a sword are Pope Francis visits with children in Budapest with visual impairments, Speak the language of charity, Pope Francis encourages in Hungary. Onesimus was a common name for slaves, meaning useful, but is also phonetically similar to Onesiphorus. David Moye. It was vital in starting the first smallpox inoculations in Boston. And the success of the smallpox inoculation set the stage for future vaccination efforts. St. Paulinus was simple and compassionate. The whole notion that a congregation would give its minister as a present an enslaved person is testimony to the rotten world in which all these people inhabited, but Mather describes him as a pretty intelligent fellow, Jones said. In the first instance, a weakened version of the foreign body (in this case, the virus that causes smallpox) is introduced into a host organism. He described the operation to me, and showed me in his arm the scar which it had left upon him, Mather wrote. In the State of Israel", "Ask the Orthodox Rabbi Adultery in Judaism Capital Punishment Death Penalty", "Tafhim al-Qur'an, Surah An Noor (The Light)", "Stoning: Does It Have Any Basis in Shari'ah? After a certain while, the eparch sent for the prisoner and, convincing himself that Saint Onesimus maintained his faith in Christ, had him stoned, after which they beheaded the saint with a sword. This article is about the biblical figure. Although cannabis is the focus of 420, many people also use the hangover holiday to appreciate their favorite foods, films and music on a higher level. Of the 242 people who were inoculated, only six died. The Torah and Talmud prescribe stoning as punishment for a number of offenses.  However, then governor Irwandi Yusuf refused to sign the bylaw, thereby keeping it a law without legal force and, in some views, therefore still a law draft, rather than actual law. WebJesus was put to death by the terrible method of crucifixion. Modern Islamists have often rejected, at least in theory, the stringent procedural constraints developed by classical jurists to restrict their application. " Brunei has become the first Southeast Asian country which officially adopts public stoning as a judicial form of punishment. But in the 18th century, Onesimus was a slave who many consider the father of vaccines.  The amended penal code, adopted in 2013, no longer contains explicit language prescribing stoning as punishment for adultery. 149167. A sentence is not attended by confiscation of the convict's goods; the person's possessions descend to their legal heirs. Language links are at the top of the page across from the title. Onesimus is regarded as a saint by many Christian denominations. He was cruelly tortured and then beaten to death. What Mather was proposing wasnt a new concept: The first evidence of inoculation was found in China back in 1000 B.C., and it was a common practice all throughout the Eastern world, especially during the Ottoman Empire. Paul Gets Stoned Acts 14:19-28 Delivered 06/28/2009. WebRecently exiled from Rome, and is currently taking care of Onesimus Archippus Son of Philemon and Apphia Stephen Person in the bible whom Onesimus' father saw being stoned, and forgave them. ", In a few others, a Bedouin man is lashed, while a Jewish woman is stoned to death, for having sex outside marriage.. Yet Onesimus' role in Boston's first inoculations was for years less well-known than the man who owned him, the influential preacher Cotton Mather, famous for his role in the Salem witch trials. Iran Human Rights Documentation Center (April 2014), Capital and corporal punishment in Judaism, The Punishment of Korah and the Stoning of Moses and Aaron, Revolutionary Association of the Women of Afghanistan, "Special report: The punishment was death by stoning.  These requirements made zina virtually impossible to prove in practice. , In China, stoning was one of the many methods of killing carried out during the Cultural Revolution, including the Guangxi Massacre.  During the Late Antiquity, the tendency of not applying the death penalty at all became predominant in Jewish courts. The episode "is important for the history of public health and scientific innovation [and] important for the history of race relations," Harvard history of science professor David S. Jones said. Allah's Apostle said to them, "What do you find in the Torah (old Testament) about the legal punishment of Ar-Rajm (stoning)?" Paul made St. Onesimus a priest and then a bishop. ", In 2006, an expatriate was sentenced to death by stoning for committing adultery. Stoning was "presumably" the standard form of capital punishment in ancient Israel. Some of the first people included in Mather's smallpox inoculation experiment in Boston were enslaved adults and their children, Reed College history professor Margot Minardi said. Yet, because he came to the United States as part of the trans-Atlantic slave trade, little of Onesimus exists in the historical record. Thanks to their partnership in our mission, we reachmore than 20 million unique users per month! Printable Catholic Saints PDFs. Venezuelan migrant thanks God, recounts journey through dangerous jungle to U.S. , Since the sharia legal system was introduced in the predominantly Muslim north of Nigeria in 2000, more than a dozen Nigerian Muslims have been sentenced to death by stoning for sexual offences ranging from adultery to homosexuality. Rabbi Akiba and Rabbi Tarfon say: Had we been in the Sanhedrin none would ever have been put to death. He preached Christ in many places across the Roman Empire, until his old age. Article 102 An adulterous man shall be buried in a ditch up to near his waist and an adulterous woman up to near her chest and then stoned to death. The Torah and Talmud prescribe stoning as punishment for a number of offenses. Although stoning is not mentioned in the Quran, classical Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh) imposed stoning as a hadd (sharia-prescribed) punishment for certain forms of zina (illicit sexual intercourse) on the basis of hadith (sayings and actions attributed to the Islamic prophet Muhammad). This account is based on what little historical record exists of Onesimus, scholarly articles about the history of inoculation, a Harvard Medical School review of the history and interviews from historians who have studied public health and colonial America. In the case of David, God caused his son to die and did not permit him to be the one to build the temple. ", Stoning in the Sunnah mainly follows on the Jewish stoning rules of the Torah. A few hadiths refer to Muhammad ordering the stoning of a married Jewish man and a married woman committing an illegal sexual act after consulting the Torah.. Saint Paul happened to know Onisemus master personally. , Hanbali jurist Ibn Qudamah states, "Muslim jurists are unanimous on the fact that stoning to death is a specified punishment for the married adulterer and adulteress. The Prophet then gave the order that both of them should be stoned to death. Successful cases of inoculation had already appeared in Turkey, China and India by 1721. In 1932, Dr. Samuel Bayard Woodward said in a speech to the Massachusetts Medical Society that the idea of inoculation came then from Cotton Mather and from Cotton Mather only.. The Mishnah states: A Sanhedrin that puts a man to death once in seven years is called destructive. Onesimus offended Philemon and fled in order to escape any sort of retribution.  Rape was traditionally prosecuted under different legal categories which used normal evidentiary rules. Its use is attested in the early Christian era, but Jewish courts generally avoided stoning sentences in later times. Copyright 2023 NBCUniversal Media, LLC. Abdullah bin Salam said, "You are telling a lie; Torah contains the order of Rajm." The culprit was a ship that arrived in Boston Harbor on April 22. Moses Maimonides, Sefer Hamitzvot, Negative Commandment no. David Moye. WebWhy was St Onesimus Stoned to Death? Acts 12 reports that James the son of Zebedee was put to death by Herod Agrippa I: 1 Now about that time Herod the king stretched forth his hands to vex certain of the church. The punishment will be "witnessed by a group of Muslims. He went on reciting till he reached a portion on which he put his hand. You therefore receive him, that is, my own heart, whom I wished to keep with me, that on your behalf he might minister to me in my chains for the gospel. They have either been thrown out on appeal, commuted to prison terms or left unenforced, in part as a result of pressure from human rights groups. Jeremiah prophesied in Judah around 626587 BC, beginning in King Josiahs reign He (i .e. But it would avert the punishment from the wife, if she bears witness four times (with an oath) by Allah, that (her husband) is telling a lie; And the fifth (oath) should be that she solemnly invokes the wrath of Allah on herself if (her accuser) is telling the truth. The campaign's main goal is to legally abolish stoning as a form of punishment for adultery in Iran. In 2016, Boston Magazine even named Onesimus one of the 100 best Bostonians of all time. Alexa Bartell, of Arvada, Colorado, was killed when a rock was thrown through her windshield while she was driving around 10:45 p.m. on Wednesday, April 19. St. Nicholas (Velimirovi) of Serbia has left us an instructive message dedicated to this great saint. Having a mobile phone", "Brunei makes gay sex and adultery punishable by death by stoning", "Capital Punishment.  A Muhsan is an adult, free, Muslim who has previously enjoyed legitimate sexual relations in matrimony, regardless of whether the marriage still exists. By. By.  Hanafi Islamic law literature specifies two types of stoning. Punishing adultery with stoning has varying levels of public support in the Muslim world, ranging from 86% of Muslims in Pakistan to 6% of Muslims in Albania and Bosnia. They (fetched it and) came and asked a one-eyed man to recite. The people told me that it was obligatory that my son should be stoned to death, so in lieu of that I ransomed my son by paying one hundred sheep and a slave girl.  In September, Article 126 of the 1991 Sudan Criminal Law, which provided for death by stoning for apostasy, was amended to provide for death by hanging. You, Unais, go to the wife of this (man) and if she confesses her guilt, stone her to death." The restrictions were to prevent execution of the innocent, and included many conditions for a testimony to be admissible that were difficult to fulfill. It has been attested as a form of Further, if the person flees, the person is allowed to leave. But Mather got the idea from none other than Onesimus, who said that he, himself, was inoculated against smallpox. After verifying Onesimuss claim with other slaves, Mather insisted that the medical community do their part to inoculate the population. In recent times, stoning has been a legal or customary punishment in Iran, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Mauritania, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Yemen, northern Nigeria, Afghanistan, Brunei, and tribal parts of Pakistan, including northwest Kurram Valley and the northwest Khwezai-Baezai region though it is rarely carried out. Her father Mohammad Azeem, who was arrested for murder, reportedly called the murder an "honor killing" and said "I killed my daughter as she had insulted all of our family by marrying a man without our consent. But without your consent I wanted to do nothing, that your good deed might not be by compulsion, as it were, but voluntary. Shaheen Abdel Rahman in Fujeirah, United Arab Emirates in 2006, The son of an Israelite woman and an Egyptian man, for cursing God (. Specific sentences of stoning, such as the Amina Lawal case, have often generated international protest. Forced sexual intercourse between a man and a woman engaged to another man in a field, where no one could hear her cries and save her, and the same is the case with a woman who uncovers herself before cattle , he who sacrifices one of his children to Molech , one that occupies himself with familiar spirits , one who violates Sabbath , one who curses his father or mother , one who has assaulted a betrothed damsel , a seducer who has seduced men to worship idols , and the one who misleads a whole town , a stubborn and rebellious son ", (A) while about to do the crime were warned not to commit the crime while in the presence of two witnesses (and only individuals who meet a strict list of standards are considered acceptable witnesses); and.  Support for stoning in various countries is as follows: Pakistan (86% in all Muslims, 89% in Muslims who say Sharia should be the law of the land), Afghanistan (84% in all Muslims, 85% in Muslims who say Sharia should be the law of the land), Bangladesh (54% in all Muslims, 55% in Muslims who say Sharia should be the law of the land), Palestinian territories (81% in all Muslims, 84% in Muslims who say Sharia should be the law of the land), Egypt (80% in all Muslims, 81% in Muslims who say Sharia should be the law of the land), Jordan (65% in all Muslims, 67% in Muslims who say Sharia should be the law of the land), Iraq (57% in all Muslims, 58% in Muslims who say Sharia should be the law of the land), Malaysia (54% in all Muslims, 60% in Muslims who say Sharia should be the law of the land), Indonesia (42% in all Muslims, 48% in Muslims who say Sharia should be the law of the land), Thailand (44% in all Muslims, 51% in Muslims who say Sharia should be the law of the land), Niger (70% in all Muslims), Djibouti (67%), Mali (58%), Senegal (58%), Guinea Bissau (54%), Tanzania (45%), Ghana (42%), DR Congo (39%), Cameroon (36%), Nigeria (33%), Kyrgyzstan (26% in all Muslims, 39% in Muslims who say Sharia should be the law of the land), Tajikistan (25% in all Muslims, 51% in Muslims who say Sharia should be the law of the land), Azerbaijan (16%), Turkey (9% in all Muslims, 29% in Muslims who say Sharia should be the law of the land), Russia (13% in all Muslims, 26% in Muslims who say sharia should be the law of the land), Kosovo (9% in all Muslims, 25% in Muslims who say Sharia should be the law of the land), Albania (6% in all Muslims, 25% in Muslims who say Sharia should be the law of the land), Bosnia (6% in all Muslims, 21% in Muslims who say Sharia should be the law of the land), Places where substantial numbers of Muslims did not answer the survey's question or are undecided about whether they support stoning for adultery include Malaysia (19% of all Muslims), Kosovo (18%), Iraq (14%), Democratic Republic of the Congo (12%) and Tajikistan (10%).. Historians disagree as to whether Roman authorities allowed Jewish communities to apply capital punishment to those who broke religious laws, or whether these episodes represented a form of lynching. He died in 109. There, he is described as "[a] runaway slave, whom the apostle Paul received to the faith of Christ while in prison, regarding him as a son of whom he had become father, as he himself wrote to Philemon, Onesimus's master".. In recent decades several states have inserted stoning and other hudud (pl. She noted that, while they weren't the only test subjects in the inoculation trial, the people in slavery likely could not decline. He came to meet Saint Ignatius the God-Bearer to Rome for execution and succeeded Apostle Timothy as Bishop of Ephesus. In 1796, using the same theory Onesimus once proposed to his master, Edward Jenner developed the first vaccine that used cowpox a cousin of smallpox to provoke immunity to the virus. "And it's something that we should be deeply proud of, and I think Onesimus is a major part of that story.".